1. People’s Liberation Army
    1. The People’s Liberation Army was the army of the Communist Party. They defeated the Nationalist Army and were later sent to control the Red Guards.
    2. It and the Communist Party was almost wiped out, but they made a 6000 mile escape called the Long March, from the south to the mountains in the north.
  2. The Nationalist Army
    1. The Nationalist Army was the army of the Nationalists. It teamed up with the People’s Liberation Army to defend China against Japan, but the People’s Liberation Army did most of the fighting.
    2. Later, it and the Nationalists had to retreat to the island of Taiwan.
  3. Mao Zedong
    1. Mao Zedong was the chairman of the Communist Party. He helped it defeat the Nationalists. After that, he declared the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Mao made the Great Leap Forward as well as the entire Cultural Revolution. He died in 1976.
  4. Jiang Qing
    1. Jiang Qing was Mao Zedong’s wife and a former actor.
    2. She was the leading figure of the Gang of Four, a radical political group.
    3. Jiang was arrested with the rest of the Gang of Four and died in 1991.
  5. The Great Leap Forward
    1. After Mao tried to collect grain from the peasants and centralize the economy (which made the economy better), he made a program called the Great Leap Forward to (hopefully) revive the Chinese economy to its fullest potential.
    2. There were two parts to the program. The first one was Mao’s orders for people to set up small furnaces in their backyards and make their own steel. This wa a huge mistake because steel production didn’t actually increase that much and the steel was of terrible quality.
    3. The second one was the idea of getting heavy machinery from the Soviet Union and using exported grain as payment. Mao took grain from the peasants who had nothing else to eat, and they couldn’t go somewhere else to look for food. Because of the Great Leap Forward, around 20 million people died.
  6. The Four Olds
    1. The Four Olds were old culture, ideas, habits, and customs.
    2. Mao wanted to get rid of them, so he had the Red Guards and People’s Liberation Army destroy anything related to the Four Olds, such as old temples, buildings, and anything else. They also persecuted, publicly humiliated, and killed anybody with ties to the Four Olds.
  7. The Red Guards
    1. The Red Guards were school-aged children who were hired by Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution.
    2. They were ordered to destroy anything related to the Four Olds, such as buildings, statues, or anything else.
    3. They were also ordered to publicly humiliate, persecute, and kill anybody with ties to the West, Nationalists, and the Four Olds.
    4. They also battled each other. As the Red Guards got more aggressive, the People’s Liberation Army was sent in to control them.
  8. The Gang of Four
    1. The Gang of Four was a very radical political group that reached its peak of power during the Cultural Revolution.
    2. It included Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife.
    3. After Mao’s death, the Gang of Four was arrested. This is marked as the end of the Cultural Revolution.
  9. Propaganda
    1. Propaganda is a message (or messages) that is/are trying to change the mindset of people to what the author wanted.
    2. In the Cultural Revolution, posters and songs tried to make people think that everything was going great under Mao’s rule (even though it was exactly the opposite). Some of the propaganda worked, and some didn’t.
    3. The posters and songs were crafted so that it would be short and have lots of pictures because the illiteracy rate was high. Some posters didn’t have any words at all. Also, the phrases on the posters and the songs were catchy, easy to spread, and made Mao seem very great and (supposedly) the most powerful person on Earth.
  10. Capitalism
    1. Capitalism is an economic system where almost all property is owned privately. The government doesn’t have control over people and companies’ wealth, and there can be free competition between companies.
    2. Supply and demand, as well as competition, is what determines price of products. The government doesn’t set prices for everything.
    3. This system causes a big gap between the rich and the poor’s salaries and general wealth.
  11. Communism
    1. Communism is the opposite of capitalism. The government owns and controls property and businesses. Also, everybody gets the same amount of money, no matter how hard they work.
    2. No one privately owns anything in a purely communist country.
    3. Karl Marx invented communism because in capitalism, there was a huge gap between the rich and the poor. The rich owned most of the property. He thought the poor would rebel against the rich, so he made communism to eliminate the rich/poor gap.
  12. Socialism
    1. Socialism is like communism, but there’s some private property and the government doesn’t try to control everything.
    2. Socialists are only trying to narrow, not eliminate, the gap between the rich and the poor. They believe people should be able to own private property, and the government just redistributes the wealth, provides things like housing and healthcare, and is supposed to make society more fair.
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